Anatomy and Physiology For Dummies

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Anatomy and Physiology For Dummies

Anatomy and Physiology For Dummies

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remember.eps Anatomical planes can pass through the body at any angle. The planes are arbitrary for the convenience of anatomists. Don’t expect the structures of the body, and especially the joints, to line up or move along the standard planes and axes. Mapping out your regions There are 98 naturally occurring elements in nature and 20 (at last count) artificially created elements for a total of 118 known elements. However, additional spaces have yet to be filled in on the periodic chart of elements, which organizes all the elements by name, symbol, atomic weight, and atomic number. The key elements of interest to students of anatomy and physiology are Ions: Because electrons are relatively far from the atomic nucleus, they are most susceptible to external fields. Atoms that have gained or lost electrons are transformed into ions. Getting an extra electron turns an atom into a negatively charged ion, or anion, whereas losing an electron creates a positively charged ion, or cation.

Additionally, the abdomen is divided into quadrants and regions. The mid-sagittal plane and a transverse plane intersect at an imaginary axis passing through the body at the navel (belly button). This axis divides the abdomen into quadrants (four sections). Putting an imaginary cross on the abdomen creates the right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, and left lower quadrant. Physicians take note of these areas when a patient describes symptoms of abdominal pain. Why does science have so many funny words? Why can’t scientists just say what they mean, in plain English? Good question, with short and long answers. Creating better communication Acid: A substance that becomes ionized when placed in solution, producing positively charged hydrogen ions, H +. An acid is considered a proton donor. (Remember, atoms always have the same number of electrons as protons. Ions are produced when an atom gains or loses electrons.) Stronger acids separate into larger numbers of H + ions in solution.The whole enchilada. The real you. As we study organ systems, organs, tissues, and cells, we’re always looking from the organism level. Chapter 2 What Your Body Does All Day In This Chapter The basic organs of the human reproductive system are the gonads, which are testes in males and ovaries in females. The male gametes, called spermatozoa or sperm, are produced in the testes, two plum-sized organs that lie in an external sac called the scrotum. The scrotum and the penis are the external reproductive organs in the human male. Spermatozoa are stored in the epididymis, which is connected to the testes by a series of ducts that end in the urethra, a hollow canal leading from the bladder and serving as the common tract for urine and semen.

Base: A substance that becomes ionized when placed in solution, producing negatively charged hydroxide ions, OH –. Bases are referred to as being more alkaline than acids and are known as proton acceptors. Stronger bases separate into larger numbers of OH – ions in solution. Abdominal cavity:Contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestines, and most of the large intestine Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and vulva in females; testes, seminal vesicles, penis, urethra, prostate, and bulbourethral glands in males Abdominal cavity: Contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestines, and most of the large intestineAbdominopelvic cavity: An imaginary line running across the hipbones and dividing the body into the abdominal and pelvic cavities: The digestion of food is both a mechanical and a chemical process. Food enters through the mouth, where chewing and saliva start to break it up and make it easier to swallow. Next, the food travels down through the esophagus to the stomach. Contractions of the stomach’s muscular wall continue to break down the food mechanically, and chemical digestion continues when acid and enzymes are secreted into the stomach cavity. Studying anatomy and physiology involves remembering lists of terms, functions, and processes. You can take just the first letter or two of each word from a list to create an acronym. Occasionally, you can go one step beyond the acronym to a clever little thing called a mnemonic device.

Stop reading for a minute. Stand up straight. Look forward. Let your arms hang down at your sides with your palms facing forward. You are now in anatomical position (see Figure 1-1). Whenever you see an anatomical drawing, the body is in this position. Using this position as the standard removes confusion. If you’re talking anatomy and physiology, you’re talking about the human body and its organs. The 11 systems in the following table provide the means for every human activity — from breathing to eating to moving to reproducing: System Each of these major groups, called a kingdom, has its own characteristic anatomy and physiology. It’s evident at a glance to everyone at the beach that a starfish and a human are both animals, while the alga in the tide pool and the cedar tree on the shoreline are both plants. Obvious details of anatomy (the presence or absence of bright green tissue) and physiology (the presence or absence of locomotion) tell that story. The different forms within each kingdom have obvious differences as well: The cedar must stand on the shore but the alga would die there. The starfish can move from one place to another within a limited range, while humans can (theoretically) go anywhere on the planet and, with the appropriate accoutrements of culture (a human adaptation), survive there for at least a while. (That is, assuming the cedar and the alga keep on photosynthesizing.) Scientists use these differences to classify organisms into smaller and smaller groups within the kingdom, until each organism is classified into its own specie-al group. Problems can come up when the specialists who use the jargon want to communicate with someone outside their field. The specialists must translate their message into more common terms to communicate it. Problems can also come up when someone approaching a field, such as a student, fails to make progress understanding and speaking the field’s jargon. This book aims to help you make the necessary progress. Following are ten key things you can start doing today to ensure success not only in anatomy and physiology but in any number of other classes. Write down important stuff in your own words

Adam Bede

This is a simple idea that far too few students practice regularly. Don’t stop at underlining and highlighting important material in your textbooks and study guides: Write it down. Or type it up. Whatever you do, don’t just regurgitate it exactly as presented in the material you’re studying. Species Sapiens: All species are given a two-part Latin name, in which the genus name comes first and a species epithet comes second. The biologists who name species sometimes try to use a descriptor in the epithet. For humans, they could have chosen bipedal or talking or hairless, but they chose thinker. The liquefied food gradually passes into the small intestine. In the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum, enzymes from the pancreas are added. These enzymes complete the chemical breakdown of the food. The digestion of fat is aided by bile, which is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. The small intestine of an adult is about 21 feet (6.4 meters) long. Most of its length is devoted to absorbing the nutrients released during these digestive activities.



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